Background:: The kidney biomarker that best reflects risk of stroke is unknown. We sought to evaluate the association of stroke with 3 kidney biomarkers: albuminuria, cystatin C, and glomerular filtration rate. Methods:: These 3 biomarkers were determined in 3,287 participants without history of stroke from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of men and women age 65 years and older from 4 US communities. The biomarkers were albuminuria ascertained using urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from morning spot urine, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cystatin C. Outcomes were incident stroke (any, ischemic, or hemorrhagic) during follow-up between 1996 and 2006. Results:: A total of 390 participants had an incident stroke: 81% ischemic, 12% hemorrhagic, and 7% unclassified. In adjusted Cox regression models, UACR was more strongly related to any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke than eGFR and cystatin C. The hazard ratio (HR) of any stroke comparing the top to bottom quintile of UACR was 2.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-3.00), while HR for eGFR was 1.29 (95% CI 0.91-1.84) and for cystatin C was 1.22 (95% CI 0.85-1.74). When considering clinically relevant categories, elevated UACR was associated with increased hazard of any stroke and ischemic stroke regardless of eGFR or cystatin C categories. Conclusions:: UACR was the kidney biomarker most strongly associated with risk of incident stroke. Results in this elderly cohort may not be applicable to younger populations. These findings suggest that measures of glomerular filtration and permeability have differential effects on stroke risk.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology