Multiple myeloma (MM) rarely occurs in patients 40 years of age and younger. This young age has been reported to correlate with improved survival in patients with MM. The objective of this study is to describe presenting features and outcomes of patients ≤40 years of age with MM who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as first-line treatment, and compare overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) to patients aged 41-65 years. We performed a retrospective institutional review of all patients ≤40 years of age and 41-65 years of age at the time of diagnosis of MM who had undergone upfront ASCT from January 1, 1990, to July 31, 2007. Thirty-eight patients ≤40 years of age and 608 patients aged 41-65 were identified. There was a high rate of plasma cell leukemia (PCL) in young patients at 11% compared to the reported rate of 2%-4%. At diagnosis, there was an increased rate of renal failure in the young cohort compared to patients aged 41-65 years at 25% versus 16% and Bence Jones proteinuria at 81% versus 51%. The rate of complete or partial response was similar between the groups at 79% and 83% in the young and older cohorts, respectively. Median PFS post-ASCT was 22.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.1, 28.0), versus 26.9 months (95% CI: 24.0, 29.8) for patients aged 41-65 years (P = .66). Median OS from date of ASCT was also similar to those over 40 years: 68.1 months (95% CI: 39.0, 97.2) versus 80.7 months (95% CI: 68.1, 93.4); P = .90. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was low at 2.6% and 2.3% in the young and older cohorts, respectively. Despite previous reports that young age is a positive prognostic marker, our study found OS post-ASCT is equivalent to those aged 41-65 years. This study emphasizes the importance of developing strategies to better the outcomes of young patients with MM.
- Autologous stem cell transplantation
- Multiple myeloma
- Young patients
ASJC Scopus subject areas