Adverse Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Events Associated With Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy

Adam Goldman, Elad Maor, David Bomze, Jennifer E. Liu, Joerg Herrmann, Joshua Fein, Richard M. Steingart, Syed S. Mahmood, Wendy L. Schaffer, Miguel Angel Perales, Roni Shouval

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Pivotal trials of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) have identified common toxicities but may have been underpowered to detect cardiovascular and pulmonary adverse events (CPAEs). Objectives: This study sought to investigate CPAEs associated with commercial CD19-directed CAR-T therapy. Methods: In this retrospective, pharmacovigilance study, the authors used the Food and Drug Administration adverse event reporting system to identify CPAEs associated with axicabtagene-ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel. The authors evaluated disproportionate reporting by the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and the lower bound of the information component 95% credibility interval (IC025 >0 is deemed significant). Significant associations were further adjusted to age and sex (adj.ROR). Results: The authors identified CAR-T reports of 2,657 patients, including 546 CPAEs (20.5%). CPAEs overlapped with cytokine release syndrome in 68.3% (373 of 546) of the reports. Compared with the full database, CAR-T was associated with overreporting of tachyarrhythmias (n = 74 [2.8%], adj.ROR = 2.78 [95% CI: 2.21-3.51]), cardiomyopathy (n = 69 [2.6%], adj.ROR = 3.51 [2.42-5.09]), pleural disorders (n = 46 [1.7%], adj.ROR = 3.91 [2.92-5.23]), and pericardial diseases (n = 11 [0.4%], adj.ROR = 2.26 [1.25-4.09], all IC025 >0). Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) were associated only with axicabtagene-ciloleucel therapy (n = 28 [1.6%], adj.ROR = 1.80 [1.24-2.62], IC025 >0). Atrial fibrillation (n = 55) was the leading tachyarrhythmia, followed by ventricular arrhythmias (n = 14). Tachyarrhythmias and VTEs were reported more often following axicabtagene-ciloleucel than tisagenlecleucel in an age- and sex-adjusted model (adj.ROR = 1.82 [1.04-3.18] and adj.ROR = 2.86 [1.18-6.93], respectively). Finally, the fatality rate of CPAEs was 30.9%. Conclusions: In this largest post-marketing study to date, the authors identified an association between CAR-T and various CPAEs, including tachyarrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, pericardial and pleural disorders, and VTEs. These findings should be considered in the multidisciplinary assessment for and monitoring of CAR-T therapy recipients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1800-1813
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume78
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2 2021

Keywords

  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • cardio-oncology
  • cardiovascular adverse events
  • chimeric antigen receptor T cell
  • pharmacovigilance
  • venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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