Adventitial transplantation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells in porcine haemodialysis grafts alleviates hypoxia and decreases neointimal proliferation through a matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated pathway - A pilot study

Deborah Hughes, Alex A. Fu, Alessandra Puggioni, James Glockner, Bilal Anwer, Antonio M. McGuire, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay Misra

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Abstract

Purpose. We hypothesized that adventitial transplantation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) to the vein-to-graft anastomosis of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts will reduce neointimal hyperplasia by reducing hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), by increasing angiogenesis in a porcine model of chronic renal insufficiency with haemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Because matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to be involved with angiogenesis, the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors was determined. Methods. Chronic renal insufficiency was created by subtotal renal infarction and 28 days later, arteriovenous PTFE grafts were placed bilaterally from the carotid artery to the jugular vein. Autologous blood outgrowth endothelial cells labeled with Lac Z were transplanted to the adventitia of the vein-to-graft anastomosis using polyglycolic acid scaffolding and scaffolding only to other side (control). Animals were killed 14 days later and vessels were explanted from the vein-to-graft anastomosis of both sides and underwent immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting and zymography for HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. BOEC were also made hypoxic and normoxic for 12, 24 and 48 h to determine protein expression for MMPs and TIMPs. Results. Under hypoxia, BOEC significantly increased the expression of pro MMP-2 by 12 h and TIMP-2 by 24 h when compared to normoxic cells (P < 0.05). Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in both HIF-1α and intima-to-media ratio with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 when compared to control vessels (P < 0.05). MMP-9 activity was localized to the neointima of the transplanted vessels by immunohistochemistry. There was increased CD31 density with engraftment of BOEC cells into the neointima of both the transplanted vessels compared to controls (P = NS). Conclusion. Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in intimal hyperplasia and HIF-1α with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 that was localized to the neointima of transplanted vessels. The increase in MMP-9 offers a possible mechanism for angiogenesis and the reduced intima-to-media ratio. Furthermore, we observed that BOEC had homed to the neointima of the contralateral vessels that had increased levels of HIF-1α, suggesting that hypoxia may be an important stimulus for BOEC migration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-96
Number of pages12
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2009

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Adventitia
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Renal Dialysis
Swine
Endothelial Cells
Transplantation
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
Transplants
Neointima
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
Veins
Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Hyperplasia
Matrix Metalloproteinase 12
Tunica Intima
Polyglycolic Acid
Hypoxia

Keywords

  • Blood outgrowth endothelial cells
  • Haemodialysis graft failure
  • Hypoxia
  • Restenosis
  • Vascular biology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

Cite this

@article{9c8c7feb9a9643fd812d98875c1b399b,
title = "Adventitial transplantation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells in porcine haemodialysis grafts alleviates hypoxia and decreases neointimal proliferation through a matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated pathway - A pilot study",
abstract = "Purpose. We hypothesized that adventitial transplantation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) to the vein-to-graft anastomosis of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts will reduce neointimal hyperplasia by reducing hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), by increasing angiogenesis in a porcine model of chronic renal insufficiency with haemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Because matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to be involved with angiogenesis, the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors was determined. Methods. Chronic renal insufficiency was created by subtotal renal infarction and 28 days later, arteriovenous PTFE grafts were placed bilaterally from the carotid artery to the jugular vein. Autologous blood outgrowth endothelial cells labeled with Lac Z were transplanted to the adventitia of the vein-to-graft anastomosis using polyglycolic acid scaffolding and scaffolding only to other side (control). Animals were killed 14 days later and vessels were explanted from the vein-to-graft anastomosis of both sides and underwent immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting and zymography for HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. BOEC were also made hypoxic and normoxic for 12, 24 and 48 h to determine protein expression for MMPs and TIMPs. Results. Under hypoxia, BOEC significantly increased the expression of pro MMP-2 by 12 h and TIMP-2 by 24 h when compared to normoxic cells (P < 0.05). Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in both HIF-1α and intima-to-media ratio with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 when compared to control vessels (P < 0.05). MMP-9 activity was localized to the neointima of the transplanted vessels by immunohistochemistry. There was increased CD31 density with engraftment of BOEC cells into the neointima of both the transplanted vessels compared to controls (P = NS). Conclusion. Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in intimal hyperplasia and HIF-1α with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 that was localized to the neointima of transplanted vessels. The increase in MMP-9 offers a possible mechanism for angiogenesis and the reduced intima-to-media ratio. Furthermore, we observed that BOEC had homed to the neointima of the contralateral vessels that had increased levels of HIF-1α, suggesting that hypoxia may be an important stimulus for BOEC migration.",
keywords = "Blood outgrowth endothelial cells, Haemodialysis graft failure, Hypoxia, Restenosis, Vascular biology",
author = "Deborah Hughes and Fu, {Alex A.} and Alessandra Puggioni and James Glockner and Bilal Anwer and McGuire, {Antonio M.} and Debabrata Mukhopadhyay and Sanjay Misra",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1093/ndt/gfn433",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "24",
pages = "85--96",
journal = "Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation",
issn = "0931-0509",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adventitial transplantation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells in porcine haemodialysis grafts alleviates hypoxia and decreases neointimal proliferation through a matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated pathway - A pilot study

AU - Hughes, Deborah

AU - Fu, Alex A.

AU - Puggioni, Alessandra

AU - Glockner, James

AU - Anwer, Bilal

AU - McGuire, Antonio M.

AU - Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

AU - Misra, Sanjay

PY - 2009/1

Y1 - 2009/1

N2 - Purpose. We hypothesized that adventitial transplantation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) to the vein-to-graft anastomosis of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts will reduce neointimal hyperplasia by reducing hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), by increasing angiogenesis in a porcine model of chronic renal insufficiency with haemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Because matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to be involved with angiogenesis, the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors was determined. Methods. Chronic renal insufficiency was created by subtotal renal infarction and 28 days later, arteriovenous PTFE grafts were placed bilaterally from the carotid artery to the jugular vein. Autologous blood outgrowth endothelial cells labeled with Lac Z were transplanted to the adventitia of the vein-to-graft anastomosis using polyglycolic acid scaffolding and scaffolding only to other side (control). Animals were killed 14 days later and vessels were explanted from the vein-to-graft anastomosis of both sides and underwent immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting and zymography for HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. BOEC were also made hypoxic and normoxic for 12, 24 and 48 h to determine protein expression for MMPs and TIMPs. Results. Under hypoxia, BOEC significantly increased the expression of pro MMP-2 by 12 h and TIMP-2 by 24 h when compared to normoxic cells (P < 0.05). Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in both HIF-1α and intima-to-media ratio with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 when compared to control vessels (P < 0.05). MMP-9 activity was localized to the neointima of the transplanted vessels by immunohistochemistry. There was increased CD31 density with engraftment of BOEC cells into the neointima of both the transplanted vessels compared to controls (P = NS). Conclusion. Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in intimal hyperplasia and HIF-1α with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 that was localized to the neointima of transplanted vessels. The increase in MMP-9 offers a possible mechanism for angiogenesis and the reduced intima-to-media ratio. Furthermore, we observed that BOEC had homed to the neointima of the contralateral vessels that had increased levels of HIF-1α, suggesting that hypoxia may be an important stimulus for BOEC migration.

AB - Purpose. We hypothesized that adventitial transplantation of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC) to the vein-to-graft anastomosis of polytetrafluoroethylene grafts will reduce neointimal hyperplasia by reducing hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), by increasing angiogenesis in a porcine model of chronic renal insufficiency with haemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Because matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to be involved with angiogenesis, the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors was determined. Methods. Chronic renal insufficiency was created by subtotal renal infarction and 28 days later, arteriovenous PTFE grafts were placed bilaterally from the carotid artery to the jugular vein. Autologous blood outgrowth endothelial cells labeled with Lac Z were transplanted to the adventitia of the vein-to-graft anastomosis using polyglycolic acid scaffolding and scaffolding only to other side (control). Animals were killed 14 days later and vessels were explanted from the vein-to-graft anastomosis of both sides and underwent immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting and zymography for HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. BOEC were also made hypoxic and normoxic for 12, 24 and 48 h to determine protein expression for MMPs and TIMPs. Results. Under hypoxia, BOEC significantly increased the expression of pro MMP-2 by 12 h and TIMP-2 by 24 h when compared to normoxic cells (P < 0.05). Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in both HIF-1α and intima-to-media ratio with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 when compared to control vessels (P < 0.05). MMP-9 activity was localized to the neointima of the transplanted vessels by immunohistochemistry. There was increased CD31 density with engraftment of BOEC cells into the neointima of both the transplanted vessels compared to controls (P = NS). Conclusion. Transplantation of BOEC resulted in a significant decrease in intimal hyperplasia and HIF-1α with a significant increase in both pro and active MMP-9 that was localized to the neointima of transplanted vessels. The increase in MMP-9 offers a possible mechanism for angiogenesis and the reduced intima-to-media ratio. Furthermore, we observed that BOEC had homed to the neointima of the contralateral vessels that had increased levels of HIF-1α, suggesting that hypoxia may be an important stimulus for BOEC migration.

KW - Blood outgrowth endothelial cells

KW - Haemodialysis graft failure

KW - Hypoxia

KW - Restenosis

KW - Vascular biology

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U2 - 10.1093/ndt/gfn433

DO - 10.1093/ndt/gfn433

M3 - Article

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VL - 24

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