Advantages and limitations of free and pedicled flaps in reconstruction of pharyngoesophageal defects

Thomas H. Nagel, Richard E Hayden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: The current review will focus on head and neck reconstructive techniques for the pharyngoesophagus. This article reviews the changing patterns of flap usage and will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of selected pedicled and free flaps for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. A number of flaps are reviewed with particular emphasis on recent developments. Recent findings: The literature reports on a variety of options available to reconstruct pharyngoesophageal defects. Pedicled flaps have a role in partial defects and select short to moderate circumferential length defects. The standard for long segment circumferential defects continues to be the fasciocutaneous free flaps and the jejunum free flap. Summary: The exact nature of the pharyngoesophageal defect, patient characteristics, and flap availability should be considered when choosing the best option for reconstruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-413
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014



  • Free flaps
  • Pedicled flaps
  • Pharyngoesophageal reconstruction
  • Total laryngopharyngectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Surgery
  • Medicine(all)

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