PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in cancer treatments have resulted in significant improvements in survival. Anthracycline chemotherapeutics play a major role in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors; however, there is a risk of anthracycline cardiomyopathy in survivors. This focused review will provide a historical context on anthracycline cardiomyopathy and will also review pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiotoxicity, dosage recommendations, prognosis, and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Anthracycline inhibition of topoisomerase 2β in cardiomyocytes is believed to be the dominant mechanism of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. Emerging data suggest that downregulation of the RNA-binding protein quaking 5 may also be contributing. There is continued lack of agreement regarding what dosage of anthracycline is associated with the highest risk of cardiotoxicity. SUMMARY: Ongoing research into the mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity is warranted to allow for the development of targeted preventive therapies. A consensus definition of anthracycline cardiomyopathy will facilitate analyses of existing data and allow for the conduction of prospective clinical trials in this area.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine