Purpose: It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short 1-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety, and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimental Design: A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and reinfused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results: A total of 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and 9 of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within 2 weeks of ACT, indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared with cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using noncryopreserved T cells. Conclusion: Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR-engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research