Adjuvant brachytherapy for FIGO stage i serous or clear cell endometrial cancer

Elizabeth B. Jeans, William G. Breen, Trey C. Mullikin, Brittany A. Looker, Andrea Mariani, Gary L. Keeney, Michael G. Haddock, Ivy A. Petersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Optimal adjuvant treatment for early-stage clear cell and serous endometrial cancer remains unclear. We report outcomes for women with surgically staged International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I clear cell, serous, and mixed endometrial cancers following adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Methods: From April 1998 to January 2020, women with FIGO stage IA-IB clear cell, serous, and mixed endometrial cancer underwent surgery and adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy. Seventy-six patients received chemotherapy. High-dose rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy was planned to a total dose of 21 gray in three fractions using a multichannel vaginal cylinder. The primary objective was to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy and to identify surgicopathological risk factors that could portend towards worse oncological outcomes. Results: A total of 182 patients were included in the analysis. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (2.3-12.2). Ten-year survival was 73.3%. Five-year cumulative incidence (CI) of vaginal, pelvic, and para-aortic relapse was 1.4%, 2.1%, and 0.9%, respectively. Five-year locoregional failure, any recurrence, peritoneal relapse, and other distant recurrence was 4.4%, 11.6%, 5.3%, and 6.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis, locoregional failure was worse for larger tumors (per 1 cm) (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0, p≤0.01). Any recurrence was worse for tumors of at least 3.5 cm (HR 3.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.7, p=0.02) and patients with positive/suspicious cytology (HR 4.4, 95% CI 1.5 to 12.4, p≤0.01). Ten-year survival for tumors of at least 3.5 cm was 56.9% versus 86.6% for those with smaller tumors (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.8, p≤0.01). Ten-year survival for positive/suspicious cytology was 50.9% versus 77.4% (HR 2.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.4, p=0.09). Multivariate modeling demonstrated worse locoregional failure, any recurrence, and survival with larger tumors, as well as any recurrence with positive/suspicious cytology. Subgroup analysis demonstrated improved outcomes with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with large tumors or positive/suspicious cytology. Conclusion: Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy alone without chemotherapy is an appropriate treatment for women with negative peritoneal cytology and small, early-stage clear cell, serous, and mixed endometrial cancer. Larger tumors or positive/suspicious cytology are at increased risk for relapse and worse survival, and should be considered for additional upfront adjuvant treatments, such as platinum-based chemotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberijgc-2020-002217
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecological Cancer
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • endometrial neoplasms
  • radiation oncology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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