Adjunctive armodafinil for major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study

Joseph R. Calabrese, Terence A. Ketter, James M. Youakim, Jane M. Tiller, Ronghua Yang, Mark A Frye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of armodafinil, the longer-lasting isomer of modafinil, when used adjunctively in patients with bipolar depression. Method: In this 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted between June 2007 and December 2008, patients who were experiencing a major depressive episode associated with bipolar I disorder (according to DSM-IV-TR criteria) despite treatment with lithium, olanzapine, or valproic acid were randomly assigned to adjunctive armodafinil 150 mg/d (n = 128) or placebo (n = 129) administered once daily in the morning. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in the total 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician-Rated (IDS-C 30) score. Secondary outcomes included changes from baseline in scores on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, among other psychological symptom scales. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with study drug and concurrent mood stabilizer treatment for bipolar disorder as factors and the corresponding baseline value as a covariate. A pre-specified sensitivity analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) if a statistically significant treatment-by-baseline interaction was found. Tolerability was also assessed. Results: A significant baseline-by-treatment interaction in the total IDS-C30 score (P = .08) was found. Patients administered adjunctive armodafinil showed greater improvement in depressive symptoms as seen in the greater mean ± SD change on the total IDS-C30 score (-15.8 ± 11.57) compared with the placebo group (-12.8 ± 12.54) (ANOVA: P = .044; ANCOVA: P = .074). No differences between treatment groups were observed in secondary outcomes. Adverse events reported more frequently in patients receiving adjunctive armodafinil were headache, diarrhea, and insomnia. Armodafinil was not associated with an increased incidence and/ or severity of suicidality, depression, or mania or with changes in metabolic profile measurements. Conclusions: In this proof-of-concept study, adjunctive armodafinil 150 mg/d appeared to improve depressive symptoms according to some, but not all, measures and was generally well tolerated in patients with bipolar depression. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00481195.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1363-1370
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume71
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2010

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Bipolar Disorder
Placebos
Depression
olanzapine
Analysis of Variance
Therapeutics
Metabolome
Valproic Acid
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Lithium
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Headache
armodafinil
Diarrhea
Cohort Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Psychology
Safety
Equipment and Supplies
Incidence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Adjunctive armodafinil for major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder : A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study. / Calabrese, Joseph R.; Ketter, Terence A.; Youakim, James M.; Tiller, Jane M.; Yang, Ronghua; Frye, Mark A.

In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 71, No. 10, 10.2010, p. 1363-1370.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of armodafinil, the longer-lasting isomer of modafinil, when used adjunctively in patients with bipolar depression. Method: In this 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted between June 2007 and December 2008, patients who were experiencing a major depressive episode associated with bipolar I disorder (according to DSM-IV-TR criteria) despite treatment with lithium, olanzapine, or valproic acid were randomly assigned to adjunctive armodafinil 150 mg/d (n = 128) or placebo (n = 129) administered once daily in the morning. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in the total 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician-Rated (IDS-C 30) score. Secondary outcomes included changes from baseline in scores on the Montgomery-{\AA}sberg Depression Rating Scale, among other psychological symptom scales. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with study drug and concurrent mood stabilizer treatment for bipolar disorder as factors and the corresponding baseline value as a covariate. A pre-specified sensitivity analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) if a statistically significant treatment-by-baseline interaction was found. Tolerability was also assessed. Results: A significant baseline-by-treatment interaction in the total IDS-C30 score (P = .08) was found. Patients administered adjunctive armodafinil showed greater improvement in depressive symptoms as seen in the greater mean ± SD change on the total IDS-C30 score (-15.8 ± 11.57) compared with the placebo group (-12.8 ± 12.54) (ANOVA: P = .044; ANCOVA: P = .074). No differences between treatment groups were observed in secondary outcomes. Adverse events reported more frequently in patients receiving adjunctive armodafinil were headache, diarrhea, and insomnia. Armodafinil was not associated with an increased incidence and/ or severity of suicidality, depression, or mania or with changes in metabolic profile measurements. Conclusions: In this proof-of-concept study, adjunctive armodafinil 150 mg/d appeared to improve depressive symptoms according to some, but not all, measures and was generally well tolerated in patients with bipolar depression. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00481195.",
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AU - Youakim, James M.

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AU - Yang, Ronghua

AU - Frye, Mark A

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N2 - Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of armodafinil, the longer-lasting isomer of modafinil, when used adjunctively in patients with bipolar depression. Method: In this 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted between June 2007 and December 2008, patients who were experiencing a major depressive episode associated with bipolar I disorder (according to DSM-IV-TR criteria) despite treatment with lithium, olanzapine, or valproic acid were randomly assigned to adjunctive armodafinil 150 mg/d (n = 128) or placebo (n = 129) administered once daily in the morning. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in the total 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician-Rated (IDS-C 30) score. Secondary outcomes included changes from baseline in scores on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, among other psychological symptom scales. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with study drug and concurrent mood stabilizer treatment for bipolar disorder as factors and the corresponding baseline value as a covariate. A pre-specified sensitivity analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) if a statistically significant treatment-by-baseline interaction was found. Tolerability was also assessed. Results: A significant baseline-by-treatment interaction in the total IDS-C30 score (P = .08) was found. Patients administered adjunctive armodafinil showed greater improvement in depressive symptoms as seen in the greater mean ± SD change on the total IDS-C30 score (-15.8 ± 11.57) compared with the placebo group (-12.8 ± 12.54) (ANOVA: P = .044; ANCOVA: P = .074). No differences between treatment groups were observed in secondary outcomes. Adverse events reported more frequently in patients receiving adjunctive armodafinil were headache, diarrhea, and insomnia. Armodafinil was not associated with an increased incidence and/ or severity of suicidality, depression, or mania or with changes in metabolic profile measurements. Conclusions: In this proof-of-concept study, adjunctive armodafinil 150 mg/d appeared to improve depressive symptoms according to some, but not all, measures and was generally well tolerated in patients with bipolar depression. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00481195.

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