Human species C adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most common viral vector used in clinical studies worldwide. Ad5 vectors infect liver cells in vivo with high efficiency via a poorly defined mechanism, which involves virus binding to vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors. Here, we report that the major Ad5 capsid protein, hexon, binds human coagulation factor X (FX) with an affinity of 229 pM. This affinity is 40-fold stronger than the reported affinity of Ad5 fiber for the cellular receptor coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor, CAR. Cryoelectron microscopy and single-particle image reconstruction revealed that the FX attachment site is localized to the central depression at the top of the hexon trimer. Hexon-mutated virus bearing a large insertion in hexon showed markedly reduced FX binding in vitro and failed to deliver a transgene to hepatocytes in vivo. This study describes the mechanism of FX binding to Ad5 and demonstrates the critical role of hexon for virus infection of hepatocytes in vivo.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Apr 8 2008|
- Gene transfer
- Virus targeting
ASJC Scopus subject areas