Background: The clinical course in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) can be complicated when patients have disease progression after prior treatment with second generation hormone therapy (second HT), such as enzalutamide or abiraterone. Currently, limited data exist regarding the optimal choice of chemotherapy for mCRPC after failing second generation hormone therapy. We sought to evaluate three common chemotherapy regimens in this setting. Methods: We retrospectively identified 150 mCRPC patients with disease progression on enzalutamide or abiraterone. Of these 150 patients, 92 patients were chemo-naïve while 58 patients had previously received docetaxel chemotherapy before being started on second HT. After failing second HT, 90 patients were assigned for docetaxel-alone (group A), 33 patients received carboplatin plus docetaxel (group B), while 27 patients received cabazitaxel-alone (Group C). A favorable response was defined by more than or equal to 50% reduction in prostate-specific antigen from the baseline level after a complete course of chemotherapy. Survival outcomes were assessed for 30-month overall survival. Results: Patients in group (B) were 2.6 times as likely to have a favorable response compared to patients in group (A) (OR = 2.625, 95%CI: 1.15-5.99) and almost three times compared to patients in group (C) (OR = 2.975, 95%CI: 1.04–8.54) (P =.0442). 30-month overall survival was 70.7%, 38.9% and 30.3% for group (B), (A), and (C), respectively (P =.008). We report a Hazard Ratio of 3.1 (95% CI, 1.31-7.35; P =.0037) between patients in group (A) versus those in group (B) and a Hazard Ratio of 4.18 (95% CI, 1.58-11.06; P =.0037) between patients in group (C) compared to those in group (B). Conclusion: This data demonstrates improved response and overall survival in treatment-refractory mCRPC with a chemotherapy regimen of docetaxel plus carboplatin when compared to docetaxel alone or cabazitaxel alone. Further investigations are required.
- advanced prostate cancer
- hormone refractory prostate cancer
- second-generation hormone therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas