Acute Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, and Other Viruses

Juan F. Gallegos-Orozco, Jorge Rakela

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Viral infections by hepatotropic and non-hepatotropic viruses are a frequent cause of acute hepatitis. Hepatitis A and E are enterically-transmitted viral infections (HAV and HEV, respectively), and prevalent worldwide. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to acute liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis A relies on serum anti-HAV IgM, while that of hepatitis E requires heightened clinical suspicion and serologic or molecular confirmation. Prognosis is excellent with spontaneous resolution in most cases. Mortality of HEV is greater than that of HAV, especially in pregnant patients, who have a mortality of 25-30%. No specific antiviral treatment is available for HAV or HEV. Effective immunoprophylaxis for hepatitis A is widely accessible, while a safe and effective recombinant HEV vaccine has recently been tested in volunteers. Non-hepatotropic viruses such as herpesviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses and parvovirus B-19, among others, can cause acute hepatitis and have significant consequences in immunocompromised individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPractical Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Liver and Biliary Disease
PublisherWiley-Blackwell
Pages173-185
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9781405182751
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 31 2010

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Keywords

  • Acute hepatitis
  • Acute liver failure
  • Acyclovir
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Ganciclovir
  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Hepatitis E virus
  • Immune globulin
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Gallegos-Orozco, J. F., & Rakela, J. (2010). Acute Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, and Other Viruses. In Practical Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Liver and Biliary Disease (pp. 173-185). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444325249.ch18