BACKGROUND RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is common in myeloid malignancies. Trametinib, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1)/MEK2 inhibitor with activity against multiple myeloid cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations, was evaluated for safety and clinical activity in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. METHODS This phase 1/2 study accrued patients with any relapsed/refractory leukemia in phase 1. In phase 2, this study accrued patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with NRAS or KRAS mutations (cohort 1); patients with AML, MDS, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) with a RAS wild-type mutation or an unknown mutation status (cohort 2); and patients with CMML with an NRAS or KRAS mutation (cohorts 3). RESULTS The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea, rash, nausea, and increased alanine aminotransferase levels. The phase 2 recommended dose for Trametinib was 2 mg orally daily. The overall response rates were 20%, 3%, and 27% for cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and this indicated preferential activity among RAS-mutated myeloid malignancies. Repeated cycles of trametinib were well tolerated with manageable or reversible toxicities; these results were similar to those of other trametinib studies. CONCLUSIONS The selective, single-agent activity of trametinib against RAS-mutated myeloid malignancies validates its therapeutic potential. Combination strategies based on a better understanding of the hierarchical role of mutations and signaling in myeloid malignancies are likely to improve the response rate and duration.
- acute myeloid leukemia
- chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
- myelodysplastic syndromes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research