Accuracy of sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint injections

Comparison of 3 techniques

Jay Smith, Jonathan T. Finnoff, Philip T. Henning, Norman S. Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of 3 different sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ) injection techniques in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Methods. A single experienced examiner injected the PSTJs of 12 unembalmed cadaveric ankle-foot specimens using the anterolateral, posterolateral, and posteromedial approaches. The injection order for each specimen was randomized, and each technique was completed with a different-color diluted latex solution. Coinvestigators blinded to the injection technique dissected each specimen and graded the colored latex location as accurate (in the PSTJ), accurate with overflow (within the PSTJ but also in other regions), or inaccurate (no latex in the joint). Results. All 3 sonographically guided PSTJ injection approaches accurately placed latex into the PSTJ (100% accuracy). Latex was also found in adjacent regions in 19.4% (7 of 36) of injections: 8.3% (3 of 36) within the tibiotalar joint, 8.3% (3 of 36) in the peroneal (fibularis) tendon sheath, and 2.8% (1 of 36) in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. The anterolateral approach placed latex outside the PSTJ 25% of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar and 2 peroneal [fibularis] sheath), the posterolateral approach 25% of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar, 1 peroneal [fibularis] sheath, and 1 flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath), and the posteromedial approach 8.3% of the time (1 tibiotalar). Conclusions. This cadaveric investigation suggests that all 3 sonographically guided PSTJ techniques may be used to access the PSTJ with a high degree of accuracy. Clinicians should consider sonographically guided PSTJ injections as a favorable alternative to fluoroscopy and computed tomographic guidance when diagnostic or therapeutic image-guided PSTJ injections are indicated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1549-1557
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2009

Fingerprint

Subtalar Joint
Latex
Injections
Tendons
Joints
Fluoroscopy
Ankle
Foot
Color

Keywords

  • Ankle injection
  • Hindfoot
  • Sonography
  • Subtalar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Accuracy of sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint injections : Comparison of 3 techniques. / Smith, Jay; Finnoff, Jonathan T.; Henning, Philip T.; Turner, Norman S.

In: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 11, 01.11.2009, p. 1549-1557.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Smith, Jay ; Finnoff, Jonathan T. ; Henning, Philip T. ; Turner, Norman S. / Accuracy of sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint injections : Comparison of 3 techniques. In: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 28, No. 11. pp. 1549-1557.
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abstract = "Objective. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of 3 different sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ) injection techniques in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Methods. A single experienced examiner injected the PSTJs of 12 unembalmed cadaveric ankle-foot specimens using the anterolateral, posterolateral, and posteromedial approaches. The injection order for each specimen was randomized, and each technique was completed with a different-color diluted latex solution. Coinvestigators blinded to the injection technique dissected each specimen and graded the colored latex location as accurate (in the PSTJ), accurate with overflow (within the PSTJ but also in other regions), or inaccurate (no latex in the joint). Results. All 3 sonographically guided PSTJ injection approaches accurately placed latex into the PSTJ (100{\%} accuracy). Latex was also found in adjacent regions in 19.4{\%} (7 of 36) of injections: 8.3{\%} (3 of 36) within the tibiotalar joint, 8.3{\%} (3 of 36) in the peroneal (fibularis) tendon sheath, and 2.8{\%} (1 of 36) in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. The anterolateral approach placed latex outside the PSTJ 25{\%} of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar and 2 peroneal [fibularis] sheath), the posterolateral approach 25{\%} of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar, 1 peroneal [fibularis] sheath, and 1 flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath), and the posteromedial approach 8.3{\%} of the time (1 tibiotalar). Conclusions. This cadaveric investigation suggests that all 3 sonographically guided PSTJ techniques may be used to access the PSTJ with a high degree of accuracy. Clinicians should consider sonographically guided PSTJ injections as a favorable alternative to fluoroscopy and computed tomographic guidance when diagnostic or therapeutic image-guided PSTJ injections are indicated.",
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N2 - Objective. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of 3 different sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ) injection techniques in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Methods. A single experienced examiner injected the PSTJs of 12 unembalmed cadaveric ankle-foot specimens using the anterolateral, posterolateral, and posteromedial approaches. The injection order for each specimen was randomized, and each technique was completed with a different-color diluted latex solution. Coinvestigators blinded to the injection technique dissected each specimen and graded the colored latex location as accurate (in the PSTJ), accurate with overflow (within the PSTJ but also in other regions), or inaccurate (no latex in the joint). Results. All 3 sonographically guided PSTJ injection approaches accurately placed latex into the PSTJ (100% accuracy). Latex was also found in adjacent regions in 19.4% (7 of 36) of injections: 8.3% (3 of 36) within the tibiotalar joint, 8.3% (3 of 36) in the peroneal (fibularis) tendon sheath, and 2.8% (1 of 36) in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. The anterolateral approach placed latex outside the PSTJ 25% of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar and 2 peroneal [fibularis] sheath), the posterolateral approach 25% of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar, 1 peroneal [fibularis] sheath, and 1 flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath), and the posteromedial approach 8.3% of the time (1 tibiotalar). Conclusions. This cadaveric investigation suggests that all 3 sonographically guided PSTJ techniques may be used to access the PSTJ with a high degree of accuracy. Clinicians should consider sonographically guided PSTJ injections as a favorable alternative to fluoroscopy and computed tomographic guidance when diagnostic or therapeutic image-guided PSTJ injections are indicated.

AB - Objective. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of 3 different sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ) injection techniques in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Methods. A single experienced examiner injected the PSTJs of 12 unembalmed cadaveric ankle-foot specimens using the anterolateral, posterolateral, and posteromedial approaches. The injection order for each specimen was randomized, and each technique was completed with a different-color diluted latex solution. Coinvestigators blinded to the injection technique dissected each specimen and graded the colored latex location as accurate (in the PSTJ), accurate with overflow (within the PSTJ but also in other regions), or inaccurate (no latex in the joint). Results. All 3 sonographically guided PSTJ injection approaches accurately placed latex into the PSTJ (100% accuracy). Latex was also found in adjacent regions in 19.4% (7 of 36) of injections: 8.3% (3 of 36) within the tibiotalar joint, 8.3% (3 of 36) in the peroneal (fibularis) tendon sheath, and 2.8% (1 of 36) in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. The anterolateral approach placed latex outside the PSTJ 25% of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar and 2 peroneal [fibularis] sheath), the posterolateral approach 25% of the time (3 of 12 injections: 1 tibiotalar, 1 peroneal [fibularis] sheath, and 1 flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath), and the posteromedial approach 8.3% of the time (1 tibiotalar). Conclusions. This cadaveric investigation suggests that all 3 sonographically guided PSTJ techniques may be used to access the PSTJ with a high degree of accuracy. Clinicians should consider sonographically guided PSTJ injections as a favorable alternative to fluoroscopy and computed tomographic guidance when diagnostic or therapeutic image-guided PSTJ injections are indicated.

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