Accuracy and Clinical Impact of Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol at High and Low Levels by Different Equations

Maureen Sampson, Anna Wolska, Justine Cole, Rafael Zubirán, James D. Otvos, Jeff W. Meeusen, Leslie J. Donato, Allan S. Jaffe, Alan T. Remaley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


New more effective lipid-lowering therapies have made it important to accurately determine Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) at both high and low levels. LDL-C was measured by the β-quantification reference method (BQ) (N = 40,346) and compared to Friedewald (F-LDL-C), Martin (M-LDL-C), extended Martin (eM-LDL-C) and Sampson (S-LDL-C) equations by regression analysis, error-grid analysis, and concordance with the BQ method for classification into different LDL-C treatment intervals. For triglycerides (TG) < 175 mg/dL, the four LDL-C equations yielded similarly accurate results, but for TG between 175 and 800 mg/dL, the S-LDL-C equation when compared to the BQ method had a lower mean absolute difference (mg/dL) (MAD = 10.66) than F-LDL-C (MAD = 13.09), M-LDL-C (MAD = 13.16) or eM-LDL-C (MAD = 12.70) equations. By error-grid analysis, the S-LDL-C equation for TG > 400 mg/dL not only had the least analytical errors but also the lowest frequency of clinically relevant errors at the low (<70 mg/dL) and high (>190 mg/dL) LDL-C cut-points (S-LDL-C: 13.5%, F-LDL-C: 23.0%, M-LDL-C: 20.5%) and eM-LDL-C: 20.0%) equations. The S-LDL-C equation also had the best overall concordance to the BQ reference method for classifying patients into different LDL-C treatment intervals. The S-LDL-C equation is both more analytically accurate than alternative equations and results in less clinically relevant errors at high and low LDL-C levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3156
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • cardiovascular disease risk
  • cholesterol
  • low-density lipoproteins
  • triglyceride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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