Background: The transient outward current (Ito) that mediates early (phase 1) repolarization is conducted by the KCND3-encoded Kv4.3 pore-forming α-subunit. KCND3 gain-of-function mutations have been reported previously as a pathogenic substrate for J wave syndromes (JWS), including the Brugada syndrome and early repolarization syndrome, as well as autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death (SUD). Acacetin, a natural flavone, is a potent Ito current blocker. Acacetin may be a novel therapeutic for KCND3-mediated J wave syndrome. Methods: KCND3-V392I was identified in an 18-year-old male with J wave syndrome/early repolarization syndrome, and a history of cardiac arrest including ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter. Pathogenic KCND3 mutation was engineered by site-directed mutagenesis and co-expressed with wild-type KChIP2 in TSA201 cells. Gene-edited/variant-corrected isogenic control and patient-specific pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from the p. Val392Ile-KCND3-positive patient were generated. Itocurrents and action potentials were recorded before and after treatment with Acacetin using the whole cell patch-clamp and multielectrode array technique. Western blot and immunocytochemistry were performed to investigate KCND3 expression. Results: KCND3-V392I demonstrated a marked gain-of-function phenotype, increasing peak Itocurrent density by 92.2% (P<0.05 versus KCND3-WT). KCND3 expression was significantly increased in KCND3-V392I-derived iPSC-CMs (P<0.05 versus isogenic control). While KCND3-WT revealed an IC50 of 7.2±1.0 µmol/L for acacetin effect, 30 µmol/L acacetin dramatically inhibited KCND3-V392I peak Ito current density by 96.2% (P<0.05 versus before Acacetin). Ito was also increased by 60.9% in Kv4.3-V392I iPSC-CM (P<0.05 versus isogenic control iPSC-CM). Ten micromoles per liter acacetin, a concentration approaching its IC50 value, inhibited Ito by ≈50% in patient-derived iPSC-CMs and reduced the accentuated action potential notch displayed in KCND3-V392I-derived iPSC-CMs. Conclusions: This preclinical study provides pharmacological and functional evidence to suggest that Acacetin may be a novel therapeutic for patients with KCND3 gain-of-function-associated J wave syndrome by inhibiting Itoand abolishing the accentuated action potential notch in patient-derived iPSC-CMs.
- early repolarization syndrome
- gene mutation
- ion channel
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine