Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) VP35 protein is a suppressor of type I interferon (IFN) production, an inhibitor of dendritic cell maturation, and a putative virulence determinant. Here, a recombinant EBOV encoding a mutant VP35 virus (VP35m) is demonstrated to activate RIG-I-like receptor signaling and innate antiviral pathways. When inoculated into cynomolgus macaques, VP35m exhibits dramatic attenuation as compared to wild-type EBOV (wtEBOV), with 20 or 300 times the standard 100% lethal challenge dose not causing EBOV disease (EVD). Further, VP35m infection, despite limited replication in vivo, activates antigen presentation and innate immunity pathways and elicits increased frequencies of proliferating memory T cells and B cells and production of anti-EBOV antibodies. Upon wtEBOV challenge, VP35m-immunized animals survive, exhibiting host responses consistent with an orderly immune response and the absence of excessive inflammation. These data demonstrate that VP35 is a critical EBOV immune evasion factor and provide insights into immune mechanisms of EBOV control.
- innate immunity
- RLR signaling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)