A system for contact free energy expenditure assessment under free-living conditions: Monitoring metabolism for weight loss using carbon dioxide emission

Mark Sprowls, Shaun Victor, Michael Serhan, Hugo Destaillats, Courtney Wheatley-Guy, Bruce Johnson, Doina Kulick, Erica Forzani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Weight disorders are strikingly prevalent globally and can contribute to a wide array of potentially fatal diseases spanning from type II diabetes to coronary heart disease. These disorders have a common cause: poor calorie balance. Since energy expenditure (EE) (kcal d1) constitutes one half of the calorie balance equation (the other half being food intake), its measurement could be of great value to those suffering from weight disorders. A technique for contact free assessment of EE is presented, which only relies on CO2 concentration monitoring within a sealed office space, and assessment of carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2). Twenty healthy subjects were tested in a cross-sectional study to evaluate the performance of the aforementioned technique in measuring both resting EE (REE) and exercise EE using the proposed system (the 'SmartPad') and a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared gold standard reference instrument for EE measurement. For VCO2 and EE measurements, the method showed a correlation slope of 1.00 and 1.03 with regression coefficients of 0.99 and 0.99, respectively, and Bland-Altman plots with a mean bias = −0.232% with respect to the reference instrument. Furthermore, two subjects were also tested as part of a proof-of-concept longitudinal study where EE patterns were simultaneously tracked with body weight, sleep, stress, and step counts using a smartwatch over the course of a month, to determine correlation between the aforementioned parameters and EE. Analysis revealed moderately high correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) for stress (raverage = 0.609) and body weight (raverage = 0.597) for the two subjects. The new SmartPad method was demonstrated to be a promising technique for EE measurement under free-living conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number026004
JournalJournal of Breath Research
Volume15
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2021

Keywords

  • Ambient biometrics
  • Internet of things (IoT)
  • Minimally invasive biomedical diagnostic
  • Point of care
  • Smart home biosensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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