A Survey on the Management of Thyroid Eye Disease Among American and European Thyroid Association Members

Juan P. Brito, Endre V. Nagy, Naykky Singh Ospina, Miloš Žarković, Chrysoula Dosiou, Nicole Fichter, Mark J. Lucarelli, Laszlo Hegedüs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The thyroid eye disease (TED) treatment landscape is rapidly evolving. How new treatment options have impacted practice is unknown. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of American and European Thyroid Association members between June 2 and June 30, 2021. The survey included TED questions about resources for its management, index cases for different severities and presentations of TED, barriers for the management of TED, and participants' concerns about TED. We classified respondents into three geographic categories: North America, Europe, or other regions. Results: Two hundred fifty-two eligible participants started the survey (15% response rate), and 227 completed it. Participants were mostly men (50.2%, 114/227), white (79.7%, 181/227), endocrinologists with a thyroid focus (66.1%, 150/227), practicing in a tertiary academic center (46.7%, 106/227), caring for 10 or more TED patients over the last 12 months (40.5%, 92/227), and reported not having a multidisciplinary TED clinic in their institution (52.8%, 120/227). The majority reported that new TED cases per annum have not changed in the past 10 years (47.5%, 108/227), and that TED patients are found in practice during the management of hyperthyroidism (41.8%, 95/227). For mild active TED, participants from Europe reported a higher use of selenium (73%[96/132] vs. 32%[20/62] of respondents from North America and 24%[8/33] of respondents from other regions). For moderate-to-severe active TED, there was a modest preference for teprotumumab as first-line therapy (37%, 23/62) among North American participants and intravenous (IV) steroids (73%[96/132], and 42%[14/33]) for participants from Europe and other regions, respectively. These treatment preferences did not change in patients with moderate-to-severe active TED with poorly controlled diabetes. In contrast, participants from the three geographic categories preferred IV steroids for optic neuropathy and women planning pregnancy. The three top "very important"concerns about TED management according to participants were: the cost of TED treatment (31.3%, 71/227), lack of effective TED treatments (19.8%, 45/227), and difficulty in predicting whether TED will develop (18.9%, 43/227). Conclusions: There is a marked geographic practice variation in the management of TED. Clinicians' concerns about TED management demand ongoing research on more effective treatment, TED predictive tools, and policy changes to improve the affordability of new TED therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1535-1546
Number of pages12
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • American Thyroid Association
  • European Thyroid Association
  • Graves' Orbitopathy
  • medical management
  • questionnaire
  • thyroid eye disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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