A Simple Score to Identify Increased Risk of Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

Daniel R. Davies, Margaret M. Redfield, Christopher G. Scott, Masatoshi Minamisawa, Martha Grogan, Angela Dispenzieri, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee, Amil M. Shah, Sanjiv J. Shah, Ramsey M. Wehbe, Scott D. Solomon, Yogesh N.V. Reddy, Barry A. Borlaug, Omar F. Abouezzeddine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Importance: Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a form of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy (PYP) enables ATTR-CM diagnosis. It is unclear which patients with HFpEF have sufficient risk of ATTR-CM to warrant PYP. Objective: To derive and validate a simple ATTR-CM score to predict increased risk of ATTR-CM in patients with HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 666 patients with HF (ejection fraction ≥ 40%) and suspected ATTR-CM referred for PYP at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from May 10, 2013, through August 31, 2020. These data were analyzed September 2020 through December 2020. A logistic regression model predictive of ATTR-CM was derived and converted to a point-based ATTR-CM risk score. The score was further validated in a community ATTR-CM epidemiology study of older patients with HFpEF with increased left ventricular wall thickness ([WT] ≥ 12 mm) and in an external (Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois) HFpEF cohort referred for PYP. Race was self-reported by the participants. In all cohorts, both case patients and control patients were definitively ascertained by PYP scanning and specialist evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Performance of the derived ATTR-CM score in all cohorts (referral validation, community validation, and external validation) and prevalence of a high-risk ATTR-CM score in 4 multinational HFpEF clinical trials. Results: Participant cohorts included were referral derivation (n = 416; 13 participants [3%] were Black and 380 participants [94%] were White; ATTR-CM prevalence = 45%), referral validation (n = 250; 12 participants [5%]were Black and 228 participants [93%] were White; ATTR-CM prevalence = 48%), community validation (n = 286; 5 participants [2%] were Black and 275 participants [96%] were White; ATTR-CM prevalence = 6%), and external validation (n = 66; 23 participants [37%] were Black and 36 participants [58%] were White; ATTR-CM prevalence = 39%). Score variables included age, male sex, hypertension diagnosis, relative WT more than 0.57, posterior WT of 12 mm or more, and ejection fraction less than 60% (score range-1 to 10). Discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92; P <.001) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow; χ2= 4.6; P =.46) were strong. Discrimination (AUC ≥ 0.84; P <.001 for all) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2= 2.8; P =.84; Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2= 4.4; P =.35; Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2= 2.5; P =.78 in referral, community, and external validation cohorts, respectively) were maintained in all validation cohorts. Precision-recall curves and predictive value vs prevalence plots indicated clinically useful classification performance for a score of 6 or more (positive predictive value ≥25%) in clinically relevant ATTR-CM prevalence (≥10% of patients with HFpEF) scenarios. In the HFpEF clinical trials, 11% to 35% of male and 0% to 6% of female patients had a high-risk (≥6) ATTR-CM score. Conclusions and Relevance: A simple 6 variable clinical score may be used to guide use of PYP and increase recognition of ATTR-CM among patients with HFpEF in the community. Further validation in larger and more diverse populations is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1036-1044
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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