A Review of the Preclinical and Clinical Efficacy of Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, and Lopinavir-Ritonavir Treatments against COVID-19

Dawid Maciorowski, Samir Z.El Idrissi, Yash Gupta, Brian J. Medernach, Michael B. Burns, Daniel P. Becker, Ravi Durvasula, Prakasha Kempaiah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

In December of 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus flared in Wuhan, the capital city of the Hubei Province, China. The pathogen has been identified as a novel enveloped RNA beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a disease characterized by severe atypical pneumonia known as coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Typical symptoms of this disease include cough, fever, malaise, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal symptoms, anosmia, and, in severe cases, pneumonia.1 The high-risk group of COVID-19 patients includes people over the age of 60 years as well as people with existing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a live animal market in Wuhan. Within the first few months of the outbreak, cases were growing exponentially all over the world. The unabated spread of this deadly and highly infectious virus is a health emergency for all nations in the world and has led to the World Health Organization (WHO) declaring a pandemic on March 11, 2020. In this report, we consolidate and review the available clinically and preclinically relevant results emanating from in vitro animal models and clinical studies of drugs approved for emergency use as a treatment for COVID-19, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir-ritonavir combinations. These compounds have been frequently touted as top candidates to treat COVID-19, but recent clinical reports suggest mixed outcomes on their efficacies within the current clinical protocol frameworks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1108-1122
Number of pages15
JournalSLAS Discovery
Volume25
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • hydroxychloroquine
  • lopinavir-ritonavir
  • remdesivir
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine

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