Purpose: To compare long-term outcomes after bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLRc) or unilateral lateral rectus recession combined with medial rectus resection in the same eye (R&R) for primary treatment of childhood intermittent exotropia (IXT). Design: Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Participants: One hundred ninety-seven children 3 to younger than 11 years of age with basic-type IXT, a largest deviation by prism and alternate cover test at any distance of 15 to 40 prism diopters (PD), and near stereoacuity of at least 400 seconds of arc. Methods: Random assignment to BLRc or R&R and masked examinations conducted every 6 months after surgery for 3 years. Main Outcome Measures: Proportion of participants meeting suboptimal surgical outcome by 3 years, defined as: (1) exotropia of 10 PD or more at distance or near using simultaneous prism and cover test (SPCT); or (2) constant esotropia of 6 PD or more at distance or near using SPCT; (3) loss of 2 octaves or more of stereoacuity from baseline, at any masked examination; or (4) reoperation without meeting any of these criteria. Results: Cumulative probability of suboptimal surgical outcome by 3 years was 46% (43/101) in the BLRc group versus 37% (33/96) in the R&R group (treatment group difference of BLRc minus R&R, 9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], –6% to 23%). Reoperation by 3 years occurred in 9 participants (10%) in the BLRc group (8 of 9 met suboptimal surgical outcome criteria) and in 4 participants (5%) in the R&R group (3 of 4 met suboptimal surgical outcome criteria; treatment group difference of BLRc minus R&R, 5%; 95% CI, –2% to 13%). Among participants completing the 3-year visit, 29% (25 of 86) in the BLRc group and 17% (13 of 77) in the R&R group underwent reoperation or met suboptimal surgical outcome criteria at 3 years (treatment group difference of BLRc minus R&R, 12%; 95% CI, –1% to 25%). Conclusions: We did not find a statistically significant difference in suboptimal surgical outcome by 3 years between children with IXT treated with BLRc compared with those treated with R&R. Based on these findings, we are unable to recommend one surgical approach over the other for childhood IXT.
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