Limited data exist regarding the prevalence and outcome of medication nonadherence in the adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) population. The objective of this cross-sectional survey study is to determine the prevalence of medication nonadherence to immunosuppressant and nonimmunosuppressant medications in adult recipients of allo-HSCT. An electronic survey using previously validated medication adherence scales was distributed between December 2014 and April 2015 to 200 adult patients with at least 3 months of follow-up after allo-HSCT. Immunosuppressant serum drug levels and prescription refill records were retrospectively collected to assess correlation with survey responses. In the entire cohort, 51% of subjects (n = 102) reported nonadherence to nonimmunosuppressant medications (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.07% to 57.93%) on the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Of the 153 patients taking oral immunosuppressant medications at the time of the survey, 58 (37.9%) reported nonadherence to immunosuppressant therapy (95% CI, 30.22% to 45.6%), as measured by the Immunosuppressant Therapy Adherence Scale. Younger age and distress were associated with medication nonadherence. Nonadherence to immunosuppressant therapy was associated with mild chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD), and a similar trend was observed for moderate cGVHD. Medication nonadherence was found to be highly prevalent for both immunosuppressant and nonimmunosuppressant medications in adult allo-HSCT recipient, and further study to identify interventions to improve adherence in these patients is warranted.
- Chronic graft-versus-host disease
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