Purpose: To determine if the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) and other hormonal contraceptives are associated with a higher incidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Design: Retrospective, population-based, case-control study. Methods: SETTING: Female IIH patients evaluated between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2016 were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP), a record-linkage system of medical records for all patient-physician encounters among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents. STUDY POPULATION: Fifty-three female residents of Olmsted County diagnosed with IIH between 15 and 45 years of age. The use of OCPs and other hormonal contraceptives was compared to controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. INTERVENTIONS/EXPOSURES: Hormonal contraceptives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds of developing IIH. Results: Of the 53 women diagnosed with IIH between 15 and 45 years of age, 11 (20.8%) had used hormonal contraceptives within ≤30 days of the date of IIH diagnosis, in contrast to 30 (31.3%) among the control patients. The odds ratio of hormonal contraceptive use and IIH was 0.55 (95% conficence interval [CI]: 0.24-1.23, P =.146). The odds ratio of OCP use was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.20-1.34, P =.174). Conclusions: OCP and other hormonal contraceptives were not significantly associated with a higher incidence of IIH, arguing against the need for women with IIH to discontinue their use.
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