A pig model of high altitude pulmonary edema

Axel Kleinsasser, David L. Levin, Alex Loeckinger, Susan R. Hopkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) affects unacclimatized individuals ascending rapidly to high altitude. The pathogenesis of HAPE is not fully elucidated, and many investigative techniques that could provide valuable information are not suitable for use in humans; thus, an animal model is desirable. Rabbits, sheep, dogs, and ferrets have been shown not to consistently develop HAPE, and studies in rats are limited by the animal's small size and inconsistent response. Pigs develop a marked pulmonary vasoconstrictive response to hypoxia, and preliminary studies of HAPE in pigs have been promising. To determine the suitability of pigs as an animal model of HAPE, we exposed six subadult (20 to 25 kg) pigs to normobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen) for 48 hr. One week before, and immediately after exposure to hypoxia, under anesthesia, arterial blood gases were obtained and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and chest x-ray were performed. Hypoxia increased alveolar-arterial pressure difference for oxygen from 22 ± 9 to 38 ± 5 torr, p < 0.01) and red cell (from 12.3 ± 5.9 to 27.4 ± 5.3 cells × 105/mL-1, p < 0.001) and white cell (from 1.59 ± 0.90 to 7.88 ± 3.36 cells × 105/mL-1, p < 0.05) concentrations in BAL in all animals. Total BAL protein concentration increased by 64% and fractional albumin by 38% (both p < 0.05) posthypoxia. One animal had evidence of pulmonary edema on X ray. Some pigs develop findings consistent with early HAPE when exposed to normobaric hypoxia. Increasing the duration of hypoxic exposure or exercising the animals in hypoxia may better model the disease process observed in humans with clinically significant HAPE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)465-474
Number of pages10
JournalHigh Altitude Medicine and Biology
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pulmonary Edema
Swine
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Investigative Techniques
Animal Models
X-Rays
Oxygen
Ferrets
Hypoxia
Albumins
Sheep
Arterial Pressure
Thorax
Anesthesia
Gases
Dogs
Rabbits
Lung

Keywords

  • Animal model
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage
  • Comparative physiology
  • HAPE
  • Pathophysiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Physiology
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Kleinsasser, A., Levin, D. L., Loeckinger, A., & Hopkins, S. R. (2003). A pig model of high altitude pulmonary edema. High Altitude Medicine and Biology, 4(4), 465-474. https://doi.org/10.1089/152702903322616218

A pig model of high altitude pulmonary edema. / Kleinsasser, Axel; Levin, David L.; Loeckinger, Alex; Hopkins, Susan R.

In: High Altitude Medicine and Biology, Vol. 4, No. 4, 12.2003, p. 465-474.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kleinsasser, A, Levin, DL, Loeckinger, A & Hopkins, SR 2003, 'A pig model of high altitude pulmonary edema', High Altitude Medicine and Biology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 465-474. https://doi.org/10.1089/152702903322616218
Kleinsasser, Axel ; Levin, David L. ; Loeckinger, Alex ; Hopkins, Susan R. / A pig model of high altitude pulmonary edema. In: High Altitude Medicine and Biology. 2003 ; Vol. 4, No. 4. pp. 465-474.
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