This phase 1/2 study assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of the oral proteasome inhibitor (PI) ixazomib in patients with relapsed/refractory immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Ixazomib was administered to adult patients with relapsed/ refractory AL amyloidosis after 1 or more prior lines of therapy (including bortezomib) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles, for up to 12 cycles. Patients with less than partial response after 3 cycles received oral dexamethasone (40 mg, days 1-4) from cycle 4.A313 dose-escalation phase was followed by 2 expansion cohorts (PI-naive and PI-exposed patients) at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Twenty-seven patients were enrolled: 11 during dose escalation (6 at 4.0mgand5 at 5.5mg)and 16 during doseexpansion (4.0 mg). Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: 1 at 4.0 mg and 2 at 5.5 mg; the MTD was determined as 4.0 mg. Mostcommonadverse events (AEs) included nausea, skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (SSTD), diarrhea, and fatigue; grade 3 or higher AEs included dyspnea, fatigue, and SSTD. Overall, the hematologic response rate was 52% in patients treated at the MTD (n 5 21). Organ responses were seen in 56% of patients (5 cardiac, 5 renal). Median hematologic progression-free survival was 14.8 months; 1-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 60% and 85%, respectively (median follow-up, 16.9 months). Weekly oral ixazomib appears to be active in patients with relapsed/refractory AL amyloidosis, with a generally manageable safety profile. The study wasregistered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01318902. A phase 3 study is ongoing (#NCT01659658).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology