A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures

R. Shane Tubbs, Andrés A. Maldonado, Yolanda Stoves, Fabian N. Fries, Rong Li, Marios Loukas, Rod J. Oskouian, Robert J. Spinner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insuffcient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identifed medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fbers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fbers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)272-276
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Volume128
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Accessory Nerve
Nerve Transfer
Anatomy
Musculocutaneous Nerve
Transplants
Cadaver
Regeneration
Immunohistochemistry

Keywords

  • Injury
  • Peripheral nerve
  • Posterior triangle
  • Spinal accessory nerve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Shane Tubbs, R., Maldonado, A. A., Stoves, Y., Fries, F. N., Li, R., Loukas, M., ... Spinner, R. J. (2018). A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures. Journal of Neurosurgery, 128(1), 272-276. https://doi.org/10.3171/2016.10.JNS161106

A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures. / Shane Tubbs, R.; Maldonado, Andrés A.; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N.; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J.; Spinner, Robert J.

In: Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 128, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 272-276.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shane Tubbs, R, Maldonado, AA, Stoves, Y, Fries, FN, Li, R, Loukas, M, Oskouian, RJ & Spinner, RJ 2018, 'A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures', Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 272-276. https://doi.org/10.3171/2016.10.JNS161106
Shane Tubbs, R. ; Maldonado, Andrés A. ; Stoves, Yolanda ; Fries, Fabian N. ; Li, Rong ; Loukas, Marios ; Oskouian, Rod J. ; Spinner, Robert J. / A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures. In: Journal of Neurosurgery. 2018 ; Vol. 128, No. 1. pp. 272-276.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insuffcient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identifed medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fbers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was {"}detethered{"} from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fbers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.",
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AU - Shane Tubbs, R.

AU - Maldonado, Andrés A.

AU - Stoves, Yolanda

AU - Fries, Fabian N.

AU - Li, Rong

AU - Loukas, Marios

AU - Oskouian, Rod J.

AU - Spinner, Robert J.

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N2 - OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insuffcient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identifed medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fbers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fbers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

AB - OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insuffcient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identifed medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fbers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fbers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

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