Polatuzumab vedotin (PV) is an antibody–drug conjugate targeting CD79b that is approved for patients with relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). Patients who relapse after chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy were not included in the registration study, and reports of PV use after CAR T cells are limited. This multicenter retrospective analysis included patients with LBCL who relapsed or progressed after CAR T-cell therapy and subsequently received PV with or without rituximab and bendamustine between July 2019 and May 2021. Response to treatment and progression were assessed based on the 2014 Lugano criteria. Fifty-seven patients were included in the study: 18 (32%) patients were primary refractory to CAR T-cell therapy, and 34 (60%) patients received PV-based therapy immediately after CAR T-cell therapy. PV was combined with rituximab in 54 (95%) patients and administered with bendamustine in 35 (61%) patients. A response was achieved in 25 (44%) patients, including complete remission in 8 (14%). No significant association between baseline characteristics and response was observed. After a median follow-up of 47 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 40-54), 46 (81%) patients had disease progression or died, and the median progression-free survival was 10 weeks (95% CI, 5-15). On a multivariate analysis, bone marrow involvement (hazard ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.8-15; P 5 .003) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (hazard ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.4-16; P 5 .01) were associated with shorter progression-free survival. Studies aimed at better characterizing the intrinsic mechanism of resistance and identifying optimal consolidation strategies for these patients are warranted.
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