Background Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) is an unusual arteriopathy; case reports and small series constitute the available literature regarding treatment. We sought to examine the presentation, contemporary management, and long-term outcomes using a multi-institutional database. Methods Using a standardized database, 14 institutions retrospectively collected demographics, comorbidities, presentation/symptoms, imaging, treatment, and follow-up data on consecutive patients treated for ACD during a 10-year period, using Society for Vascular Surgery reporting standards for limb ischemia. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed comparing treatment methods and factors associated with recurrent intervention. Life-table analysis was performed to estimate the freedom from reintervention in comparing the various treatment modalities. Results Forty-seven patients (32 men, 15 women; mean age, 43 years) were identified with ACD involving the popliteal artery (n = 41), radial artery (n = 3), superficial/common femoral artery (n = 2), and common femoral vein (n = 1). Lower extremity claudication was seen in 93% of ACD of the leg arteries, whereas patients with upper extremity ACD had hand or arm pain. Preoperative diagnosis was made in 88% of patients, primarily using cross-sectional imaging of the lower extremity; mean lower extremity ankle-brachial index was 0.71 in the affected limb. Forty-one patients with lower extremity ACD underwent operative repair (resection with interposition graft, 21 patients; cyst resection, 13 patients; cyst resection with bypass graft, 5 patients; cyst resection with patch, 2 patients). Two patients with upper extremity ACD underwent cyst drainage without resection or arterial reconstruction. Complications, including graft infection, thrombosis, hematoma, and wound dehiscence, occurred in 12% of patients. Mean lower extremity ankle-brachial index at 3 months postoperatively improved to 1.07 (P < .001), with an overall mean follow-up of 20 months (range, 0.33-9 years). Eight patients (18%) with lower extremity arterial ACD required reintervention (redo cyst resection, one; thrombectomy, three; redo bypass, one; balloon angioplasty, three) after a mean of 70 days with symptom relief in 88%. Lower extremity patients who underwent cyst resection and interposition or bypass graft were less likely to require reintervention (P = .04). One patient with lower extremity ACD required an above-knee amputation for extensive tissue loss. Conclusions This multi-institutional, contemporary experience of ACD examines the treatment and outcomes of ACD. The majority of patients can be identified preoperatively; surgical repair, consisting of cyst excision with arterial reconstruction or bypass alone, provides the best long-term symptomatic relief and reduced need for intervention to maintain patency.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine