Context: Hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and recurrent nephrolithiasis are all common clinical problems. This case report illustrates a newly described but possibly not uncommon cause of this presenting complex. Objective: We report on a patient studied for over 30 years, with the diagnosis finally made with modern biochemical and genetic tools. Design and Setting: This study consists of a case report and review of literature conducted in a University Referral Center. Patient and Intervention: A single patient with hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and recurrent nephrolithiasis was treated with low-calcium diet, low vitamin D intake, prednisone, and ketoconazole. Main Outcome Measure: We measured the patient's clinical and biochemical response to interventions above. Results: Calcium absorption measured by dual isotope absorptiometry was elevated at 37.4%. Serum levels of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were very low, as measured in two laboratories (0.62 ng/mL [normal, 3.49 ± 1.57], and 0.18 mg/mL). Genetic analysis of CYP24A1 revealed homozygous mutation E143del previously described. The patient's serum calcium and renal function improved markedly on treatment with ketoconazole but not with prednisone. Conclusions: Chronic hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and/or nephrolithiasis may be caused by mutations in CYP24A1 causing failure to metabolize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical