{A figure is presented}The Utility of Lens Culinaris Agglutinin-Reactive α-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Evaluation in a United States Referral Population

Apinya Leerapun, Sri V. Suravarapu, John P. Bida, Raynell J. Clark, Elizabeth L. Sanders, Teresa A. Mettler, Linda M. Stadheim, Ileana Aderca, Catherine D. Moser, David M. Nagorney, Nicholas F La Russo, Piet C. de Groen, K. V Narayanan Menon, Konstantinos N Lazaridis, Gregory James Gores, Michael R. Charlton, Rosebud O Roberts, Terry M Therneau, Jerry A. Katzmann, Lewis Rowland Roberts

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Abstract

Background & Aims: The percentage of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive (α)-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) is proposed as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the utility of AFP-L3% for diagnosis of HCC in a US referral population. Methods: This retrospective study included 272 patients: 166 with HCC and 106 with benign liver disease (chronic liver disease, 77; benign liver mass, 29). The AFP-L3% was measured using a clinical auto-analyzer. Results: The AFP-L3% is not reported for a total α-fetoprotein (AFP) less than 10 ng/mL, and all patients with an AFP greater than 200 ng/mL had HCC; thus the AFP-L3% was noninformative for these patients. In patients with a total AFP of 10-200 ng/mL, an AFP-L3% greater than 10% had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63% for diagnosis of HCC. An AFP-L3% greater than 35% had a reduced sensitivity of 33%, but an increased specificity of 100%. The high specificity of the AFP-L3% cut-off of 35% allowed the confident diagnosis of an additional 10% of HCCs not diagnosed using an AFP cut-off of 200 ng/mL. After adjustment for AFP level, no association was observed between AFP-L3% and tumor size, stage, vascular invasion, grade, or survival. Conclusions: Patients with indeterminate total AFP values of 10-200 ng/mL present a diagnostic dilemma. We found that an AFP-L3% greater than 35% has 100% specificity for HCC in these patients. AFP-L3%, used in combination with AFP, may be a clinically useful adjunct marker for the diagnosis of HCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)394-402
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume5
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2007

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Fetal Proteins
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Referral and Consultation
Population
lentil lectin
Liver Diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Medicine(all)

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{A figure is presented}The Utility of Lens Culinaris Agglutinin-Reactive α-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma : Evaluation in a United States Referral Population. / Leerapun, Apinya; Suravarapu, Sri V.; Bida, John P.; Clark, Raynell J.; Sanders, Elizabeth L.; Mettler, Teresa A.; Stadheim, Linda M.; Aderca, Ileana; Moser, Catherine D.; Nagorney, David M.; La Russo, Nicholas F; de Groen, Piet C.; Menon, K. V Narayanan; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Gores, Gregory James; Charlton, Michael R.; Roberts, Rosebud O; Therneau, Terry M; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Roberts, Lewis Rowland.

In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol. 5, No. 3, 03.2007, p. 394-402.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Leerapun, A, Suravarapu, SV, Bida, JP, Clark, RJ, Sanders, EL, Mettler, TA, Stadheim, LM, Aderca, I, Moser, CD, Nagorney, DM, La Russo, NF, de Groen, PC, Menon, KVN, Lazaridis, KN, Gores, GJ, Charlton, MR, Roberts, RO, Therneau, TM, Katzmann, JA & Roberts, LR 2007, '{A figure is presented}The Utility of Lens Culinaris Agglutinin-Reactive α-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Evaluation in a United States Referral Population', Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 394-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2006.12.005
Leerapun, Apinya ; Suravarapu, Sri V. ; Bida, John P. ; Clark, Raynell J. ; Sanders, Elizabeth L. ; Mettler, Teresa A. ; Stadheim, Linda M. ; Aderca, Ileana ; Moser, Catherine D. ; Nagorney, David M. ; La Russo, Nicholas F ; de Groen, Piet C. ; Menon, K. V Narayanan ; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N ; Gores, Gregory James ; Charlton, Michael R. ; Roberts, Rosebud O ; Therneau, Terry M ; Katzmann, Jerry A. ; Roberts, Lewis Rowland. / {A figure is presented}The Utility of Lens Culinaris Agglutinin-Reactive α-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma : Evaluation in a United States Referral Population. In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2007 ; Vol. 5, No. 3. pp. 394-402.
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abstract = "Background & Aims: The percentage of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive (α)-fetoprotein (AFP-L3{\%}) is proposed as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the utility of AFP-L3{\%} for diagnosis of HCC in a US referral population. Methods: This retrospective study included 272 patients: 166 with HCC and 106 with benign liver disease (chronic liver disease, 77; benign liver mass, 29). The AFP-L3{\%} was measured using a clinical auto-analyzer. Results: The AFP-L3{\%} is not reported for a total α-fetoprotein (AFP) less than 10 ng/mL, and all patients with an AFP greater than 200 ng/mL had HCC; thus the AFP-L3{\%} was noninformative for these patients. In patients with a total AFP of 10-200 ng/mL, an AFP-L3{\%} greater than 10{\%} had a sensitivity of 71{\%} and a specificity of 63{\%} for diagnosis of HCC. An AFP-L3{\%} greater than 35{\%} had a reduced sensitivity of 33{\%}, but an increased specificity of 100{\%}. The high specificity of the AFP-L3{\%} cut-off of 35{\%} allowed the confident diagnosis of an additional 10{\%} of HCCs not diagnosed using an AFP cut-off of 200 ng/mL. After adjustment for AFP level, no association was observed between AFP-L3{\%} and tumor size, stage, vascular invasion, grade, or survival. Conclusions: Patients with indeterminate total AFP values of 10-200 ng/mL present a diagnostic dilemma. We found that an AFP-L3{\%} greater than 35{\%} has 100{\%} specificity for HCC in these patients. AFP-L3{\%}, used in combination with AFP, may be a clinically useful adjunct marker for the diagnosis of HCC.",
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T1 - {A figure is presented}The Utility of Lens Culinaris Agglutinin-Reactive α-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

T2 - Evaluation in a United States Referral Population

AU - Leerapun, Apinya

AU - Suravarapu, Sri V.

AU - Bida, John P.

AU - Clark, Raynell J.

AU - Sanders, Elizabeth L.

AU - Mettler, Teresa A.

AU - Stadheim, Linda M.

AU - Aderca, Ileana

AU - Moser, Catherine D.

AU - Nagorney, David M.

AU - La Russo, Nicholas F

AU - de Groen, Piet C.

AU - Menon, K. V Narayanan

AU - Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

AU - Gores, Gregory James

AU - Charlton, Michael R.

AU - Roberts, Rosebud O

AU - Therneau, Terry M

AU - Katzmann, Jerry A.

AU - Roberts, Lewis Rowland

PY - 2007/3

Y1 - 2007/3

N2 - Background & Aims: The percentage of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive (α)-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) is proposed as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the utility of AFP-L3% for diagnosis of HCC in a US referral population. Methods: This retrospective study included 272 patients: 166 with HCC and 106 with benign liver disease (chronic liver disease, 77; benign liver mass, 29). The AFP-L3% was measured using a clinical auto-analyzer. Results: The AFP-L3% is not reported for a total α-fetoprotein (AFP) less than 10 ng/mL, and all patients with an AFP greater than 200 ng/mL had HCC; thus the AFP-L3% was noninformative for these patients. In patients with a total AFP of 10-200 ng/mL, an AFP-L3% greater than 10% had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63% for diagnosis of HCC. An AFP-L3% greater than 35% had a reduced sensitivity of 33%, but an increased specificity of 100%. The high specificity of the AFP-L3% cut-off of 35% allowed the confident diagnosis of an additional 10% of HCCs not diagnosed using an AFP cut-off of 200 ng/mL. After adjustment for AFP level, no association was observed between AFP-L3% and tumor size, stage, vascular invasion, grade, or survival. Conclusions: Patients with indeterminate total AFP values of 10-200 ng/mL present a diagnostic dilemma. We found that an AFP-L3% greater than 35% has 100% specificity for HCC in these patients. AFP-L3%, used in combination with AFP, may be a clinically useful adjunct marker for the diagnosis of HCC.

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