A deep learning-based method for automatic segmentation of proximal femur from quantitative computed tomography images

Chen Zhao, Joyce H. Keyak, Jinshan Tang, Tadashi S. Kaneko, Sundeep Khosla, Shreyasee Amin, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Lan Juan Zhao, Michael J. Serou, Chaoyang Zhang, Hui Shen, Hong Wen Deng, Weihua Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Proximal femur image analyses based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) provide a method to quantify the bone density and evaluate osteoporosis and risk of fracture. We aim to develop a deep-learning-based method for automatic proximal femur segmentation. Methods and Materials: We developed a 3D image segmentation method based on V-Net, an end-to-end fully convolutional neural network (CNN), to extract the proximal femur QCT images automatically. The proposed V-net methodology adopts a compound loss function, which includes a Dice loss and a L2 regularizer. We performed experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed segmentation method. In the experiments, a QCT dataset which included 397 QCT subjects was used. For the QCT image of each subject, the ground truth for the proximal femur was delineated by a well-trained scientist. During the experiments for the entire cohort then for male and female subjects separately, 90% of the subjects were used in 10-fold cross-validation for training and internal validation, and to select the optimal parameters of the proposed models; the rest of the subjects were used to evaluate the performance of models. Results: Visual comparison demonstrated high agreement between the model prediction and ground truth contours of the proximal femur portion of the QCT images. In the entire cohort, the proposed model achieved a Dice score of 0.9815, a sensitivity of 0.9852 and a specificity of 0.9992. In addition, an R2 score of 0.9956 (p<0.001) was obtained when comparing the volumes measured by our model prediction with the ground truth. Conclusion: This method shows a great promise for clinical application to QCT and QCT-based finite element analysis of the proximal femur for evaluating osteoporosis and hip fracture risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUnknown Journal
StatePublished - Jun 9 2020

Keywords

  • Convolutional neural networks
  • Deep learning
  • Proximal femur
  • Quantitative computed tomography
  • Segmentation
  • V-Net

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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