A concerted decline in insulin secretion and action occurs across the spectrum of fasting and postchallenge glucose concentrations

Airani Sathananthan, Chiara Dalla Man, Alan R. Zinsmeister, Michael Camilleri, Richard J. Rodeheffer, Gianna Toffolo, Claudio Cobelli, Robert A. Rizza, Adrian Vella

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Abstract

Aims/hypothesis Individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are at increased risk of developing diabetes over the subsequent decade. However, there is uncertainty as to the mechanisms contributing to the development of diabetes. We sought to quantitate insulin secretion and action across the prediabetic range of fasting glucose. Methods We studied a cohort of 173 individuals with a fasting glucose concentration <7·0 mm after an overnight fast using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin action (S i) was estimated using the oral glucose minimal model, and β-cell responsivity indices (Ï) were estimated using the oral C-peptide minimal model. The disposition index (DI) for each individual was calculated. The relationship of DI, Ï and S i with fasting and postchallenge glucose, as well as other covariates, was explored using a generalized linear regression model. Results In this cross-sectional study, S i and DI were inversely related to fasting glucose concentrations. On the other hand, Ï was unrelated to fasting glucose concentrations. S i, Ï and DI were all inversely related to area above basal glucose concentrations after glucose challenge. Multiple parameters including body composition and gender contributed to the variability of S i and DI at a given fasting or postchallenge glucose concentration. Conclusions/interpretation Defects in insulin secretion and action interact with body composition and gender to influence postchallenge glucose concentrations. There is considerable heterogeneity of insulin secretion and action for a given fasting glucose likely because of patient subsets with isolated IFG and normal glucose tolerance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-219
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Endocrinology
Volume76
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2012

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Fasting
Insulin
Glucose
Body Composition
Linear Models
C-Peptide
Glucose Tolerance Test
Uncertainty
Cross-Sectional Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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A concerted decline in insulin secretion and action occurs across the spectrum of fasting and postchallenge glucose concentrations. / Sathananthan, Airani; Man, Chiara Dalla; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Camilleri, Michael; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Toffolo, Gianna; Cobelli, Claudio; Rizza, Robert A.; Vella, Adrian.

In: Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 76, No. 2, 02.2012, p. 212-219.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sathananthan, Airani ; Man, Chiara Dalla ; Zinsmeister, Alan R. ; Camilleri, Michael ; Rodeheffer, Richard J. ; Toffolo, Gianna ; Cobelli, Claudio ; Rizza, Robert A. ; Vella, Adrian. / A concerted decline in insulin secretion and action occurs across the spectrum of fasting and postchallenge glucose concentrations. In: Clinical Endocrinology. 2012 ; Vol. 76, No. 2. pp. 212-219.
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