3D printed personalized magnetic micromachines from patient blood-derived biomaterials

Hakan Ceylan, Nihal Olcay Dogan, Immihan Ceren Yasa, Mirac Nur Musaoglu, Zeynep Umut Kulali, Metin Sitti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While recent wireless micromachines have shown increasing potential for medical use, their potential safety risks concerning biocompatibility need to be mitigated. They are typically constructed from materials that are not intrinsically compatible with physiological environments. Here, we propose a personalized approach by using patient blood-derivable biomaterials as the main construction fabric of wireless medical micromachines to alleviate safety risks from biocompatibility. We demonstrate 3D printed multiresponsive microswimmers and microrollers made from magnetic nanocomposites of blood plasma, serum albumin protein, and platelet lysate. These micromachines respond to time-variant magnetic fields for torque-driven steerable motion and exhibit multiple cycles of pH-responsive two-way shape memory behavior for controlled cargo delivery and release applications. Their proteinaceous fabrics enable enzymatic degradability with proteinases, thereby lowering risks of long-term toxicity. The personalized micromachine fabrication strategy we conceptualize here can affect various future medical robots and devices made of autologous biomaterials to improve biocompatibility and smart functionality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbereabh0273
JournalScience Advances
Issue number36
StatePublished - Sep 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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