3D Nanoprinted Plastic Kinoform X-Ray Optics

Umut T. Sanli, Hakan Ceylan, Iuliia Bykova, Markus Weigand, Metin Sitti, Gisela Schütz, Kahraman Keskinbora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


High-performance focusing of X-rays requires the realization of very challenging 3D geometries with nanoscale features, sub-millimeter-scale apertures, and high aspect ratios. A particularly difficult structure is the profile of an ideal zone plate called a kinoform, which is manufactured in nonideal approximated patterns, nonetheless requires complicated multistep fabrication processes. Here, 3D fabrication of high-performance kinoforms with unprecedented aspect ratios out of low-loss plastics using femtosecond two-photon 3D nanoprinting is presented. A thorough characterization of the 3D-printed kinoforms using direct soft X-ray imaging and ptychography demonstrates superior performance with an efficiency reaching up to 20%. An extended concept is proposed for on-chip integration of various X-ray optics toward high-fidelity control of X-ray wavefronts and ultimate efficiencies even for harder X-rays. Initial results establish new, advanced focusing optics for both synchrotron and laboratory sources for a large variety of X-ray techniques and applications ranging from materials science to medicine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1802503
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number36
StatePublished - Sep 6 2018


  • 3D nanoprinting
  • X-ray microscopy
  • kinoforms
  • ptychography
  • soft X-ray optics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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