1a,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Encapsulated in Nanoparticles Prevents Venous Neointimal Hyperplasia and Stenosis in Porcine Arteriovenous Fistulas

Avishek K. Singh, Chuanqi Cai, Sreenivasulu Kilari, Chenglei Zhao, Michael L. Simeon, Edwin Takahashi, Elazer R. Edelman, Hyunjoon Kong, Thanila Macedo, Ravinder J. Singh, Matthew W. Urban, Rajiv Kumar, Sanjay Misra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Few therapies prevent venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) and venous stenosis (VS) formation in arteriovenous fistulas (AVF). Expression of the immediate early response gene X-1 (Iex-1), also known as Ier3, is associated with VNH and stenosis in murine AVFs. The study aimed to determine if local release of Ier3 long-acting inhibitor 1a,25(OH)2D3 from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles embedded in a thermosensitive Pluronic F127 hydrogel (1,25 NP) could affect VNH/VS formation in a large animal model. Methods Immediately after AVF creation in a porcine model of renal failure, 1,25 NP or vehicle control was injected into the adventitia space of AVF outflow veins. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering characterized drug and control nanoparticles. Animals were sacrificed 3 and 28 days later for gene expression, immunohistologic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, and ultrasound analyses. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing with differential gene expression analysis was performed on outflow veins of AVF. Results Encapsulation of 1a,25(OH)2D3 in PLGA nanoparticles formed nanoparticles of uniform size that were similar to nanoparticles without 1a,25(OH)2D3. The 1,25 NP–treated AVFs exhibited lower VNH/VS, Ier3 gene expression, and IER-3, MCP-1, CD68, HIF-1a, and VEGF-A immunostaining, fibrosis, and proliferation. Blood flow and lumen area increased significantly, whereas peak systolic velocity and wall shear stress decreased. Treatment increased Young’s modulus and correlated with histologic assessment of fibrosis and with no evidence of vascular calcification. RNA sequencing analysis showed changes in the expression of genes associated with inflammatory, TGFb1, and apoptotic pathways. Conclusions Local release of 1,25 NP improves AVF flow and hemodynamics, and reduces stenosis in association with reduction in inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis in a porcine model of arteriovenous fistula.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)866-885
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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