Background: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFA) supplementation in animal models of diet-induced obesity has consistently shown to improve insulin sensitivity. The same is not always reported in human studies with insulin resistant (IR) subjects with obesity. Objective: We studied whether high-dose ω-3PUFA supplementation for 3 months improves insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in IR subjects with obesity. Methods: Thirteen subjects (BMI = 39.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) underwent 80 mU/m2·min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with subcutaneous (Sc) AT biopsy before and after 3 months of ω-3PUFA (DHA and EPA, 4 g/daily) supplementation. Cytoadipokine plasma profiles were assessed before and after ω-3PUFA. AT-specific inflammatory gene expression was evaluated on Sc fat biopsies. Microarray analysis was performed on the fat biopsies collected during the program. Results: Palmitic and stearic acid plasma levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after ω-3PUFA. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers and adipokines were improved after ω-3PUFA (P < 0.05). Systemic inflammation was decreased after ω-3PUFA, as shown by cytokine assessment (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with a 25% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (4.7 ± 0.6 mg/kg ffm•min vs. 5.9 ± 0.9 mg/kg ffm•min) despite no change in body weight. Microarray analysis identified 53 probe sets significantly altered post- ω-3PUFA, with Apolipoprotein E (APOE) being one of the most upregulated genes. Conclusion: High dose of long chain ω-3PUFA supplementation modulates significant changes in plasma fatty acid profile, AT, and systemic inflammation. These findings are associated with significant improvement of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Unbiased microarray analysis of Sc fat biopsy identified APOE as among the most differentially regulated gene after ω-3PUFA supplementation. We speculate that ω-3PUFA increases macrophage-derived APOE mRNA levels with anti-inflammatory properties.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics